The Absorption Principles



When liquid evaporates, it absorbs heat from its surroundings. For example, to spread a drop of alcohol on your hand, you will feel very cool, as the alcohol absorbs heat from your hand. Evaporation is a basic theory to design many refrigeration equipment. Water evaporates at 1000 C under normal pressure
(760 mmHg), but can evaporate at very low temp, under vacuum condition.

By creating 6 mmHg pressure condition in an airtight vessel, water can evaporate even at 40C. The water vapor then migrates to the evaporator and the absorber where the lithium bromide solution (a very strong absorbent of water) absorbs the surrounding vapor continuously and keeps the low pressure condition in the evaporator /absorber vessel. All absorption chillers are designed as per the theory that water takes away the heat of the air conditioning system as it evaporates under vacuum conditions.

The lithium bromide solution absorbs the vapor ( transferring the heat of absorption  to   cooling water )  in a diluted solution which is pumped to a higher  pressure  where  heat ( from fuels, steam, hot water, flue gas, etc ) is added to re-vaporize the water. The concentrated LiBr solution returns to the absorber and water vapour to condenser to begin the process all over again


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